What is Blood pressure? Normal range and Symptoms

Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls when the heart pumps blood throughout the body. The systolic and diastolic pressures are measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The top number, systolic pressure, is the pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts or beats, while the bottom number, diastolic pressure, is when the heart is at rest between beats. Depending on age, health, and other factors, adult blood pressure is usually 120/80 mmHg. Untreated hypertension, or high blood pressure, can cause heart disease, stroke, and other health issues. The link between high blood pressure and diabetes is also established scientifically. In this way a liaison with best diabetes specialist in Lahore can also be helpful

What does BP mean?

Systolic and diastolic pressure are measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). The top number is systolic, and the lower number is diastolic.

The diastolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries between heartbeats, while the systolic pressure is the pressure when the heart contracts.

If the systolic and diastolic pressures are less than 120 and 80 mmHg, respectively, the blood pressure is normal.

Elevated blood pressure is 120-129 mmHg systolic and less than 80 diastolic.

Stage 1 hypertension is diagnosed when systolic pressure is 130-139 mmHg or diastolic pressure is 80-89 mmHg.

When the systolic or diastolic pressure is 140 or 90 mmHg, stage 2 hypertension is diagnosed.

Chronically high blood pressure may require therapy or lifestyle adjustments to avert major health issues.

Normal blood pressure?

Adult blood pressure averages 120/80 mmHg. The first number (120) indicates the systolic pressure in the arteries when the heart beats or contracts, and the second number (80) reflects the diastolic pressure when the heart is at rest between beats. Blood pressure depends on age, gender, weight, health, and family history.

If your blood pressure is consistently above 120/80 mmHg, talk to your doctor about ways to lower it to prevent heart disease, stroke, and kidney damage.

What’s hypertension?

Hypertension, or high blood pressure, occurs when blood pressure is continually high. Narrow or stiff arteries might make blood flow difficult.

High blood pressure, known as the “silent killer,” can cause heart disease, stroke, kidney damage, and vision loss without symptoms.

The American Heart Association defines hypertension as 130/80 mmHg or above. Hypertension is usually diagnosed after repeated blood pressure readings.

Healthy eating, exercise, and stress management can lower blood pressure. Medication can lower blood pressure and reduce problems.

High blood pressure symptoms?

Hypertension, commonly known as high blood pressure, is called the “silent killer” because it typically has no symptoms. Only a doctor can diagnose it.

Symptoms of high blood pressure include:

  • Headaches
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Chest pain
  • Lightheadedness or dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Blindness
  • Throwing up

High blood pressure is not the only cause of these symptoms. That’s why you should get your blood pressure checked often, especially if you smoke, are obese, have a family history of hypertension, or are sedentary. High blood pressure identification and management can avert significant health issues.

High blood pressure causes what?

Untreated hypertension can cause many health issues. Blood pressure against artery walls can damage blood vessels and organs, causing catastrophic problems like:

Heart disease: High blood pressure increases the risk of heart disease, including angina, heart attack, heart failure, and arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms).

Stroke: High blood pressure damages brain blood arteries, increasing the risk of stroke, which can cause brain damage or death.

Kidney disease: Kidneys filter blood. High blood pressure damages renal blood vessels, causing kidney disease or failure.

Vision problems: High blood pressure can damage eye blood vessels and cause blindness.

Peripheral artery disease: High blood pressure damages leg blood arteries, limiting blood flow and risking leg discomfort and cramps.

Sexual dysfunction: High blood pressure damages blood vessels and reduces genital blood flow, causing sexual dysfunction in men and women.

Cognitive impairment: Older persons with high blood pressure are more likely to develop dementia.

Many major health issues can be prevented by managing high blood pressure with lifestyle changes, medication, or both.

Heart Disease

Heart disease covers many heart disorders. Plaque in heart muscle-supplying arteries causes coronary artery disease, the most common type of heart disease. Over time, this can restrict the arteries and limit heart blood flow, causing chest pain (angina), heart attack, or other significant consequences.

Myocardial infarctions—heart attacks—occur when a blood clot blocks blood supply to a heart muscle. If untreated, this can damage the heart muscle and produce life-threatening consequences.

Heart attacks can cause chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and pain in the arms, neck, jaw, or back. Not all heart attacks cause symptoms, and some people have different symptoms.

High blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, obesity, diabetes, a family history of heart disease, and a sedentary lifestyle can raise heart disease and heart attack risk. Lifestyle modifications include a balanced diet, frequent exercise, not smoking, and taking medications as prescribed can minimize the risk of heart disease and heart attack.

Brain and Stroke

A blood clot or damaged blood artery interrupts cerebral blood flow, causing a stroke. This can kill brain cells, causing brain damage or death.

Common stroke symptoms include:

  • One-sided facial, arm, or leg weakness or numbness.
  • Disorientation, difficulty speaking or understanding.
  • Unexpected vision loss.
  • Sudden dizziness, balance loss, or walking difficulties.
  • An undiagnosed acute headache.

Stroke symptoms must be recognized and treated immediately. Medications or surgery to eliminate blood clots restore cerebral blood flow in stroke treatment.

Injury, infection, inflammation, and degenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s can also cause brain difficulties. Depending on the brain condition and affected location, symptoms may include headaches, dizziness, disorientation, memory loss, seizures, or mood or behavior problems. Medication, treatment, or surgery may treat brain issues, depending on the cause.

Kidney Disease

Renal disease arises when damaged kidneys cannot filter waste and excess fluids from the circulation. Toxins and fluids can build up, causing health issues.

Kidney disease is often caused by high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain drugs or infections. Smoking, obesity, and a family history of renal disease raise kidney disease risk.

Kidney disease symptoms vary by stage, but may include:

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Leg, ankle, or foot swelling
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Nausea and appetite loss
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Increased or decreased urination, frothy, bloody, or murky urine,

Kidney illness may not show symptoms until it’s advanced. Kidney failure requires dialysis or a kidney transplant if left untreated.

Kidney disease treatment depends on the etiology and stage. Dietary adjustments, blood pressure and sugar drugs, and kidney transplants may be needed. Kidney disease can be slowed and complications avoided by early detection and management. So, it is important to visit the best hospital nearby.


In conclusion, untreated high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, and renal disease can cause serious health issues or death. Identifying the signs and symptoms of these disorders and managing risk factors such high blood pressure, cholesterol, and obesity can minimize the likelihood of acquiring them and improve health outcomes. See a doctor if you have symptoms or health concerns.


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